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  • Muhammad Irfan Khan

Theory predicting earth like planets, watery planets around the red dwarf

Recent exoplanet exploration has focused on the discovery of temperate rocky planets like the Earth, which are often called habitable planets. Most of the recent missions are targeting stars cooler than the sun. Such stars are known as red dwarfs or M-type stars, which are numerous in the solar neighbourhood. Moderate insolation and an adequate amount of seawater are necessary for a planet to maintain a temperate climate. Previous planet formation models, however, predict that the occurrence rate of planets satisfying such conditions around M-type stars is small. Some students and professors have focused on the formation of a hydrogen-rich atmosphere from the protoplanetary disk and water production via the reaction between the atmosphere and the magma ocean. hey have developed a new planet formation model and, thereby, have predicted the amounts of seawater that exoplanets orbiting M-type stars would have. As a result, their estimate shows that several percent of planets with Earth-like radii and insolation orbiting M-type stars have moderate amounts of seawater. This suggests that the discovery of planets with temperate climates in the next decade is likely. The research results have been published in Nature Astronomy on Sept. 29. This is ground breaking as we are destroying this planet with climate change ,which you can check the news for from Shameera, which means we may lose our planet even in our lifetime but having a backup will be useful even though it probably will only be accessible for rich it’s still allows for humans to live on. Though hearing this is all nice this is still only a theory but this theory is said to be able to come to within a decade so we will have to wait and see if it is possible. Among the planets detected so far, there are many Earth-sized planets. Whether any of them have a temperate climate like the Earth is a matter of great interest. Water is necessary for life on Earth, but water also plays an important role in climate. It is known that the maintenance of temperate climates requires a moderate amount of stellar radiation as well as an ocean with a moderate amount of water.

The present-day Earth is able to maintain a warm climate due to the functioning of the carbon cycle with plate tectonics and continental weathering; if the amount of oceanic water were several dozen times greater than on Earth, the carbon cycle would be restricted, resulting in an extremely hot or cold climate. A widespread idea is that the present-day Earth's oceans were delivered by water-bearing rocky or icy bodies. Previous studies applying this idea to exoplanets around M-type stars led to the prediction that planets with moderate water content are rare, suggesting that although M-type stars are the main target of future habitable planet searches, habitable planets are highly unlikely to be found. On the other hand, the production of water in an accumulating atmosphere was proposed as an alternative water acquisition process in previous research by Prof. Ikoma and his colleague. Generally, as a planet grows in a protoplanetary disk, it gravitationally acquires gas from the disk and forms an atmosphere composed mainly of hydrogen.In addition, the rocky surface of the growing planet is thought to be molten due to the heat of celestial impact so mainly the planet is covered with a magma ocean. At this time, a chemical reaction between atmospheric hydrogen and oxides in the magma ocean lead to producing water. Which then might lead to the process of how the earth came to be happen once again leading to another earth or is other terms a back up option.Taking into account the effects of such a water-producing reaction, it is possible to form a planet richer in water than in conventional theoretical models.

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